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Source code for galaxy.util.pastescript.serve

# Most of this code is:

# (c) 2005 Ian Bicking and contributors; written for Paste (http://pythonpaste.org)
# Licensed under the MIT license: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php

# The server command includes the additional header:

# For discussion of daemonizing:
#   http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Cookbook/Python/Recipe/278731
# Code taken also from QP:
#   http://www.mems-exchange.org/software/qp/
#   From lib/site.py

# Galaxy originally used PasteScript and PasteDeploy for application
# loading, to maintain compatibility we've internalized some of that
# code here, stripping out uneeded functionality.

# All top level imports from each package moved here and organized

import atexit
import configparser
import errno
import grp
import logging
import optparse
import os
import pwd
import re
import resource
import signal
import socket
import subprocess
import sys
import textwrap
import threading
import time
from gettext import gettext as _
from logging.config import fileConfig
from typing import Optional

from .loadwsgi import loadapp, loadserver

difflib = None

# ---- from paste.script.bool_optparse --------------------------------

A subclass of ``optparse.OptionParser`` that allows boolean long
options (like ``--verbose``) to also take arguments (like
``--verbose=true``).  Arguments *must* use ``=``.

[docs]class BoolOptionParser(optparse.OptionParser): def _process_long_opt(self, rargs, values): arg = rargs.pop(0) # Value explicitly attached to arg? Pretend it's the next # argument. if "=" in arg: (opt, next_arg) = arg.split("=", 1) rargs.insert(0, next_arg) had_explicit_value = True else: opt = arg had_explicit_value = False opt = self._match_long_opt(opt) option = self._long_opt[opt] if option.takes_value(): nargs = option.nargs if len(rargs) < nargs: if nargs == 1: self.error(_("%s option requires an argument") % opt) else: self.error(_("%s option requires %d arguments") % (opt, nargs)) elif nargs == 1: value = rargs.pop(0) else: value = tuple(rargs[0:nargs]) del rargs[0:nargs] elif had_explicit_value: value = rargs[0].lower().strip() del rargs[0:1] if value in ('true', 'yes', 'on', '1', 'y', 't'): value = None elif value in ('false', 'no', 'off', '0', 'n', 'f'): # Don't process return else: self.error(_('%s option takes a boolean value only (true/false)') % opt) else: value = None option.process(opt, value, values, self)
# ---- from paste.script.command -------------------------------------- # (c) 2005 Ian Bicking and contributors; written for Paste (http://pythonpaste.org) # Licensed under the MIT license: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php
[docs]class BadCommand(Exception):
[docs] def __init__(self, message, exit_code=2): self.message = message self.exit_code = exit_code Exception.__init__(self, message)
def _get_message(self): """Getter for 'message'; needed only to override deprecation in BaseException.""" return self.__message def _set_message(self, value): """Setter for 'message'; needed only to override deprecation in BaseException.""" self.__message = value # BaseException.message has been deprecated since Python 2.6. # To prevent DeprecationWarning from popping up over this # pre-existing attribute, use a new property that takes lookup # precedence. message = property(_get_message, _set_message)
[docs]class NoDefault: pass
# run and invoke methods moved below ServeCommand
[docs]class Command:
[docs] def __init__(self, name): self.command_name = name
max_args = None max_args_error = 'You must provide no more than %(max_args)s arguments' min_args: Optional[int] = None min_args_error = 'You must provide at least %(min_args)s arguments' required_args = None # If this command takes a configuration file, set this to 1 or -1 # Then if invoked through #! the config file will be put into the positional # arguments -- at the beginning with 1, at the end with -1 takes_config_file: Optional[int] = None # Grouped in help messages by this: group_name = '' required_args = () description: Optional[str] = None usage = '' hidden = False # This is the default verbosity level; --quiet subtracts, # --verbose adds: default_verbosity = 0 # This is the default interactive state: default_interactive = 0 return_code = 0 BadCommand = BadCommand # Must define: # parser # summary # command()
[docs] def run(self, args): self.parse_args(args) # Setup defaults: for name, default in [('verbose', 0), ('quiet', 0), ('interactive', False), ('overwrite', False)]: if not hasattr(self.options, name): setattr(self.options, name, default) if getattr(self.options, 'simulate', False): self.options.verbose = max(self.options.verbose, 1) self.interactive = self.default_interactive if getattr(self.options, 'interactive', False): self.interactive += self.options.interactive if getattr(self.options, 'no_interactive', False): self.interactive = False self.verbose = self.default_verbosity self.verbose += self.options.verbose self.verbose -= self.options.quiet self.simulate = getattr(self.options, 'simulate', False) # For #! situations: if os.environ.get('PASTE_CONFIG_FILE') and self.takes_config_file is not None: take = self.takes_config_file filename = os.environ.get('PASTE_CONFIG_FILE') if take == 1: self.args.insert(0, filename) elif take == -1: self.args.append(filename) else: assert 0, ( f"Value takes_config_file must be None, 1, or -1 (not {take!r})") if os.environ.get('PASTE_DEFAULT_QUIET'): self.verbose = 0 # Validate: if self.min_args is not None and len(self.args) < self.min_args: raise BadCommand( self.min_args_error % {'min_args': self.min_args, 'actual_args': len(self.args)}) if self.max_args is not None and len(self.args) > self.max_args: raise BadCommand( self.max_args_error % {'max_args': self.max_args, 'actual_args': len(self.args)}) for var_name, option_name in self.required_args: if not getattr(self.options, var_name, None): raise BadCommand( f'You must provide the option {option_name}') result = self.command() if result is None: return self.return_code else: return result
[docs] def parse_args(self, args): if self.usage: usage = f" {self.usage}" else: usage = '' self.parser.usage = f"%prog [options]{usage}\n{self.summary}" self.parser.prog = self._prog_name() if self.description: desc = self.description desc = textwrap.dedent(desc) self.parser.description = desc self.options, self.args = self.parser.parse_args(args)
def _prog_name(self): return f'{os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])} {self.command_name}' ######################################## # Utility methods ########################################
[docs] def pad(self, s, length, dir='left'): if len(s) >= length: return s if dir == 'left': return s + ' ' * (length - len(s)) else: return ' ' * (length - len(s)) + s
def _standard_parser(cls, verbose=True, interactive=False, no_interactive=False, simulate=False, quiet=False, overwrite=False): """ Create a standard ``OptionParser`` instance. Typically used like:: class MyCommand(Command): parser = Command.standard_parser() Subclasses may redefine ``standard_parser``, so use the nearest superclass's class method. """ parser = BoolOptionParser() if verbose: parser.add_option('-v', '--verbose', action='count', dest='verbose', default=0) if quiet: parser.add_option('-q', '--quiet', action='count', dest='quiet', default=0) if no_interactive: parser.add_option('--no-interactive', action="count", dest="no_interactive", default=0) if interactive: parser.add_option('-i', '--interactive', action='count', dest='interactive', default=0) if simulate: parser.add_option('-n', '--simulate', action='store_true', dest='simulate', default=False) if overwrite: parser.add_option('-f', '--overwrite', dest="overwrite", action="store_true", help="Overwrite files (warnings will be emitted for non-matching files otherwise)") return parser standard_parser = classmethod(_standard_parser)
[docs] def quote_first_command_arg(self, arg): """ There's a bug in Windows when running an executable that's located inside a path with a space in it. This method handles that case, or on non-Windows systems or an executable with no spaces, it just leaves well enough alone. """ if sys.platform != 'win32' or ' ' not in arg: # Problem does not apply: return arg try: import win32api except ImportError: raise ValueError( "The executable %r contains a space, and in order to " "handle this issue you must have the win32api module " "installed" % arg) arg = win32api.GetShortPathName(arg) return arg
[docs] def parse_vars(self, args): """ Given variables like ``['a=b', 'c=d']`` turns it into ``{'a': 'b', 'c': 'd'}`` """ result = {} for arg in args: if '=' not in arg: raise BadCommand( f'Variable assignment {arg!r} invalid (no "=")') name, value = arg.split('=', 1) result[name] = value return result
[docs] def logging_file_config(self, config_file): """ Setup logging via the logging module's fileConfig function with the specified ``config_file``, if applicable. ConfigParser defaults are specified for the special ``__file__`` and ``here`` variables, similar to PasteDeploy config loading. """ parser = configparser.ConfigParser() parser.read([config_file]) if parser.has_section('loggers'): config_file = os.path.abspath(config_file) fileConfig(config_file, dict(__file__=config_file, here=os.path.dirname(config_file)))
[docs]class NotFoundCommand(Command):
[docs] def run(self, args): print('Command %r not known (you may need to run setup.py egg_info)' % self.command_name) commands = list() commands.sort() if not commands: print('No commands registered.') print('Have you installed Paste Script?') print('(try running python setup.py develop)') return 2 print('Known commands:') longest = max([len(n) for n, c in commands]) for name, command in commands: print(f' {self.pad(name, length=longest)} {command.load().summary}') return 2
# ---- From paste.script.serve ---------------------------------------- MAXFD = 1024 jython = sys.platform.startswith('java')
[docs]class DaemonizeException(Exception): pass
[docs]class ServeCommand(Command): min_args = 0 usage = 'CONFIG_FILE [start|stop|restart|status] [var=value]' takes_config_file = 1 summary = "Serve the described application" description: Optional[str] = """\ This command serves a web application that uses a paste.deploy configuration file for the server and application. If start/stop/restart is given, then --daemon is implied, and it will start (normal operation), stop (--stop-daemon), or do both. You can also include variable assignments like 'http_port=8080' and then use %(http_port)s in your config files. """ # used by subclasses that configure apps and servers differently requires_config_file = True parser = Command.standard_parser(quiet=True) parser.add_option('-n', '--app-name', dest='app_name', metavar='NAME', help="Load the named application (default main)") parser.add_option('-s', '--server', dest='server', metavar='SERVER_TYPE', help="Use the named server.") parser.add_option('--server-name', dest='server_name', metavar='SECTION_NAME', help="Use the named server as defined in the configuration file (default: main)") if hasattr(os, 'fork'): parser.add_option('--daemon', dest="daemon", action="store_true", help="Run in daemon (background) mode") parser.add_option('--pid-file', dest='pid_file', metavar='FILENAME', help="Save PID to file (default to paster.pid if running in daemon mode)") parser.add_option('--log-file', dest='log_file', metavar='LOG_FILE', help="Save output to the given log file (redirects stdout)") parser.add_option('--reload', dest='reload', action='store_true', help="Use auto-restart file monitor") parser.add_option('--reload-interval', dest='reload_interval', default=1, help="Seconds between checking files (low number can cause significant CPU usage)") parser.add_option('--monitor-restart', dest='monitor_restart', action='store_true', help="Auto-restart server if it dies") parser.add_option('--status', action='store_true', dest='show_status', help="Show the status of the (presumably daemonized) server") if hasattr(os, 'setuid'): # I don't think these are available on Windows parser.add_option('--user', dest='set_user', metavar="USERNAME", help="Set the user (usually only possible when run as root)") parser.add_option('--group', dest='set_group', metavar="GROUP", help="Set the group (usually only possible when run as root)") parser.add_option('--stop-daemon', dest='stop_daemon', action='store_true', help='Stop a daemonized server (given a PID file, or default paster.pid file)') if jython: parser.add_option('--disable-jython-reloader', action='store_true', dest='disable_jython_reloader', help="Disable the Jython reloader") _scheme_re = re.compile(r'^[a-z][a-z]+:', re.I) default_verbosity = 1 _reloader_environ_key = 'PYTHON_RELOADER_SHOULD_RUN' _monitor_environ_key = 'PASTE_MONITOR_SHOULD_RUN' possible_subcommands = ('start', 'stop', 'restart', 'status')
[docs] def command(self): if self.options.stop_daemon: return self.stop_daemon() if not hasattr(self.options, 'set_user'): # Windows case: self.options.set_user = self.options.set_group = None # @@: Is this the right stage to set the user at? self.change_user_group( self.options.set_user, self.options.set_group) if self.requires_config_file: if not self.args: raise BadCommand('You must give a config file') app_spec = self.args[0] if len(self.args) > 1 and self.args[1] in self.possible_subcommands: cmd = self.args[1] restvars = self.args[2:] else: cmd = None restvars = self.args[1:] else: app_spec = "" if self.args and self.args[0] in self.possible_subcommands: cmd = self.args[0] restvars = self.args[1:] else: cmd = None restvars = self.args[:] if (getattr(self.options, 'daemon', False) and getattr(self.options, 'reload', False)): raise BadCommand('The --daemon and --reload options may not be used together') jython_monitor = False if self.options.reload: if jython and not self.options.disable_jython_reloader: # JythonMonitor raises the special SystemRestart # exception that'll cause the Jython interpreter to # reload in the existing Java process (avoiding # subprocess startup time) try: from paste.reloader import JythonMonitor except ImportError: pass else: jython_monitor = JythonMonitor(poll_interval=int( self.options.reload_interval)) if self.requires_config_file: jython_monitor.watch_file(self.args[0]) if not jython_monitor: if os.environ.get(self._reloader_environ_key): from paste import reloader if self.verbose > 1: print('Running reloading file monitor') reloader.install(int(self.options.reload_interval)) if self.requires_config_file: reloader.watch_file(self.args[0]) else: return self.restart_with_reloader() if cmd not in (None, 'start', 'stop', 'restart', 'status'): raise BadCommand( f'Error: must give start|stop|restart (not {cmd})') if cmd == 'status' or self.options.show_status: return self.show_status() if cmd == 'restart' or cmd == 'stop': result = self.stop_daemon() if result: print("Could not stop daemon") # It's ok to continue trying to restart if stop_daemon returns # a 1, otherwise shortcut and return. if cmd == 'restart' and result != 1: return result if cmd == 'stop': return result self.options.daemon = True if cmd == 'start': self.options.daemon = True app_name = self.options.app_name vars = self.parse_vars(restvars) if not self._scheme_re.search(app_spec): app_spec = f"config:{app_spec}" server_name = self.options.server_name if self.options.server: server_spec = 'egg:PasteScript' assert server_name is None server_name = self.options.server else: server_spec = app_spec base = os.getcwd() if getattr(self.options, 'daemon', False): if not self.options.pid_file: self.options.pid_file = 'paster.pid' if not self.options.log_file: self.options.log_file = 'paster.log' # Ensure the log file is writeable if self.options.log_file: try: writeable_log_file = open(self.options.log_file, 'a') except OSError as ioe: msg = f'Error: Unable to write to log file: {ioe}' raise BadCommand(msg) writeable_log_file.close() # Ensure the pid file is writeable if self.options.pid_file: try: writeable_pid_file = open(self.options.pid_file, 'a') except OSError as ioe: msg = f'Error: Unable to write to pid file: {ioe}' raise BadCommand(msg) writeable_pid_file.close() if getattr(self.options, 'daemon', False): try: self.daemonize() except DaemonizeException as ex: if self.verbose > 0: print(str(ex)) return if (self.options.monitor_restart and not os.environ.get(self._monitor_environ_key)): return self.restart_with_monitor() if self.options.pid_file: self.record_pid(self.options.pid_file) if self.options.log_file: stdout_log = LazyWriter(self.options.log_file, 'a') sys.stdout = stdout_log sys.stderr = stdout_log logging.basicConfig(stream=stdout_log) log_fn = app_spec if log_fn.startswith('config:'): log_fn = app_spec[len('config:'):] elif log_fn.startswith('egg:'): log_fn = None if log_fn: log_fn = os.path.join(base, log_fn) self.logging_file_config(log_fn) server = loadserver(server_spec, name=server_name, relative_to=base, global_conf=vars) app = loadapp(app_spec, name=app_name, relative_to=base, global_conf=vars) if self.verbose > 0: if hasattr(os, 'getpid'): msg = 'Starting server in PID %i.' % os.getpid() else: msg = 'Starting server.' print(msg) def serve(): try: server(app) except (SystemExit, KeyboardInterrupt) as e: if self.verbose > 1: raise if str(e): msg = f" {str(e)}" else: msg = '' print(f'Exiting{msg} (-v to see traceback)') except AttributeError as e: # Capturing bad error response from paste if str(e) == "'WSGIThreadPoolServer' object has no attribute 'thread_pool'": raise OSError(98, 'Address already in use') else: raise AttributeError(e) if jython_monitor: # JythonMonitor has to be ran from the main thread threading.Thread(target=serve).start() print('Starting Jython file monitor') jython_monitor.periodic_reload() else: serve()
[docs] def daemonize(self): pid = live_pidfile(self.options.pid_file) if pid: raise DaemonizeException( "Daemon is already running (PID: %s from PID file %s)" % (pid, self.options.pid_file)) if self.verbose > 0: print('Entering daemon mode') pid = os.fork() if pid: # The forked process also has a handle on resources, so we # *don't* want proper termination of the process, we just # want to exit quick (which os._exit() does) os._exit(0) # Make this the session leader os.setsid() # Fork again for good measure! pid = os.fork() if pid: os._exit(0) # @@: Should we set the umask and cwd now? maxfd = resource.getrlimit(resource.RLIMIT_NOFILE)[1] if maxfd == resource.RLIM_INFINITY: maxfd = MAXFD # Iterate through and close all file descriptors. for fd in range(0, maxfd): try: os.close(fd) except OSError: # ERROR, fd wasn't open to begin with (ignored) pass if hasattr(os, "devnull"): REDIRECT_TO = os.devnull else: REDIRECT_TO = "/dev/null" os.open(REDIRECT_TO, os.O_RDWR) # standard input (0) # Duplicate standard input to standard output and standard error. os.dup2(0, 1) # standard output (1) os.dup2(0, 2) # standard error (2)
[docs] def record_pid(self, pid_file): pid = os.getpid() if self.verbose > 1: print(f'Writing PID {pid} to {pid_file}') f = open(pid_file, 'w') f.write(str(pid)) f.close() atexit.register(_remove_pid_file, pid, pid_file, self.verbose)
[docs] def stop_daemon(self): pid_file = self.options.pid_file or 'paster.pid' if not os.path.exists(pid_file): print(f'No PID file exists in {pid_file}') return 1 pid = read_pidfile(pid_file) if not pid: print(f"Not a valid PID file in {pid_file}") return 1 pid = live_pidfile(pid_file) if not pid: print(f"PID in {pid_file} is not valid (deleting)") try: os.unlink(pid_file) except OSError as e: print(f"Could not delete: {e}") return 2 return 1 for _i in range(10): if not live_pidfile(pid_file): break os.kill(pid, signal.SIGTERM) time.sleep(1) else: print(f"failed to kill web process {pid}") return 3 if os.path.exists(pid_file): os.unlink(pid_file) return 0
[docs] def show_status(self): pid_file = self.options.pid_file or 'paster.pid' if not os.path.exists(pid_file): print(f'No PID file {pid_file}') return 1 pid = read_pidfile(pid_file) if not pid: print(f'No PID in file {pid_file}') return 1 pid = live_pidfile(pid_file) if not pid: print(f'PID {pid} in {pid_file} is not running') return 1 print(f'Server running in PID {pid}') return 0
[docs] def restart_with_reloader(self): self.restart_with_monitor(reloader=True)
[docs] def restart_with_monitor(self, reloader=False): if self.verbose > 0: if reloader: print('Starting subprocess with file monitor') else: print('Starting subprocess with monitor parent') while 1: args = [self.quote_first_command_arg(sys.executable)] + sys.argv new_environ = os.environ.copy() if reloader: new_environ[self._reloader_environ_key] = 'true' else: new_environ[self._monitor_environ_key] = 'true' proc = None try: try: _turn_sigterm_into_systemexit() proc = subprocess.Popen(args, env=new_environ) exit_code = proc.wait() proc = None except KeyboardInterrupt: print('^C caught in monitor process') if self.verbose > 1: raise return 1 finally: if proc is not None and hasattr(os, 'kill'): try: os.kill(proc.pid, signal.SIGTERM) except OSError: pass if reloader: # Reloader always exits with code 3; but if we are # a monitor, any exit code will restart if exit_code != 3: return exit_code if self.verbose > 0: print('-' * 20, 'Restarting', '-' * 20)
[docs] def change_user_group(self, user, group): if not user and not group: return uid = gid = None if group: try: gid = int(group) group = grp.getgrgid(gid).gr_name except ValueError: try: entry = grp.getgrnam(group) except KeyError: raise BadCommand( f"Bad group: {group!r}; no such group exists") gid = entry.gr_gid try: uid = int(user) user = pwd.getpwuid(uid).pw_name except ValueError: try: entry = pwd.getpwnam(user) except KeyError: raise BadCommand( f"Bad username: {user!r}; no such user exists") if not gid: gid = entry.pw_gid uid = entry.pw_uid if self.verbose > 0: print('Changing user to {}:{} ({}:{})'.format( user, group or '(unknown)', uid, gid)) if hasattr(os, 'initgroups'): os.initgroups(user, gid) else: os.setgroups([e.gr_gid for e in grp.getgrall() if user in e.gr_mem] + [gid]) if gid: os.setgid(gid) if uid: os.setuid(uid)
[docs]class LazyWriter: """ File-like object that opens a file lazily when it is first written to. """
[docs] def __init__(self, filename, mode='w'): self.filename = filename self.fileobj = None self.lock = threading.Lock() self.mode = mode
[docs] def open(self): if self.fileobj is None: self.lock.acquire() try: if self.fileobj is None: self.fileobj = open(self.filename, self.mode) finally: self.lock.release() return self.fileobj
[docs] def write(self, text): fileobj = self.open() fileobj.write(text) fileobj.flush()
[docs] def writelines(self, text): fileobj = self.open() fileobj.writelines(text) fileobj.flush()
[docs] def flush(self): self.open().flush()
[docs]def live_pidfile(pidfile): """(pidfile:str) -> int | None Returns an int found in the named file, if there is one, and if there is a running process with that process id. Return None if no such process exists. """ pid = read_pidfile(pidfile) if pid: try: os.kill(int(pid), 0) return pid except OSError as e: if e.errno == errno.EPERM: return pid return None
[docs]def read_pidfile(filename): if os.path.exists(filename): try: f = open(filename) content = f.read() f.close() return int(content.strip()) except (ValueError, OSError): return None else: return None
def _remove_pid_file(written_pid, filename, verbosity): current_pid = os.getpid() if written_pid != current_pid: # A forked process must be exiting, not the process that # wrote the PID file return if not os.path.exists(filename): return f = open(filename) content = f.read().strip() f.close() try: pid_in_file = int(content) except ValueError: pass else: if pid_in_file != current_pid: print("PID file {} contains {}, not expected PID {}".format( filename, pid_in_file, current_pid)) return if verbosity > 0: print(f"Removing PID file {filename}") try: os.unlink(filename) return except OSError as e: # Record, but don't give traceback print(f"Cannot remove PID file: {e}") # well, at least lets not leave the invalid PID around... try: f = open(filename, 'w') f.write('') f.close() except OSError as e: print(f'Stale PID left in file: {filename} ({e:e})') else: print('Stale PID removed')
[docs]def ensure_port_cleanup(bound_addresses, maxtries=30, sleeptime=2): """ This makes sure any open ports are closed. Does this by connecting to them until they give connection refused. Servers should call like:: import paste.script ensure_port_cleanup([80, 443]) """ atexit.register(_cleanup_ports, bound_addresses, maxtries=maxtries, sleeptime=sleeptime)
def _cleanup_ports(bound_addresses, maxtries=30, sleeptime=2): # Wait for the server to bind to the port. for bound_address in bound_addresses: for _i in range(maxtries): sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM) try: sock.connect(bound_address) except OSError as e: if e.errno != errno.ECONNREFUSED: raise break else: time.sleep(sleeptime) else: raise SystemExit('Timeout waiting for port.') sock.close() def _turn_sigterm_into_systemexit(): """ Attempts to turn a SIGTERM exception into a SystemExit exception. """ def handle_term(signo, frame): raise SystemExit signal.signal(signal.SIGTERM, handle_term) # ---- from paste.script.command -------------------------------------- python_version = sys.version.splitlines()[0].strip() parser = optparse.OptionParser(add_help_option=False, # version='%s from %s (python %s)' # % (dist, dist.location, python_version), usage='%prog [paster_options] COMMAND [command_options]') parser.add_option( '-h', '--help', action='store_true', dest='do_help', help="Show this help message") parser.disable_interspersed_args() # @@: Add an option to run this in another Python interpreter commands = { 'serve': ServeCommand }
[docs]def run(args=None): if (not args and len(sys.argv) >= 2 and os.environ.get('_') and sys.argv[0] != os.environ['_'] and os.environ['_'] == sys.argv[1]): # probably it's an exe execution args = ['exe', os.environ['_']] + sys.argv[2:] if args is None: args = sys.argv[1:] options, args = parser.parse_args(args) options.base_parser = parser if options.do_help: args = ['help'] + args if not args: print(f'Usage: {sys.argv[0]} COMMAND') args = ['help'] command_name = args[0] if command_name not in commands: command = NotFoundCommand else: command = commands[command_name] invoke(command, command_name, options, args[1:])
[docs]def invoke(command, command_name, options, args): try: runner = command(command_name) exit_code = runner.run(args) except BadCommand as e: print(e) exit_code = e.exit_code sys.exit(exit_code)